Development of a risk-based index for source water protection planning, which supports the reduction of pathogens from agricultural activity entering water resources

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Development of a risk-based index for source water protection planning, which supports the reduction of pathogens from agricultural activity entering water resources

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dc.contributor.author Goss, Michael
dc.contributor.author Richards, Charlene
dc.date.accessioned 2011-04-29T20:49:58Z
dc.date.available 2011-04-29T20:49:58Z
dc.date.issued 2008
dc.identifier.citation Goss, M. and Richards, C. "Development of a risk-based index for source water protection planning, which supports the reduction of pathogens from agricultural activity entering water resources." Journal of Environmental Management 87 (2008): 623-632
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10214/2669
dc.description.abstract Source water protection planning (SWPP) is an approach to prevent contamination of ground and surface water in watersheds where these resources may be abstracted for drinking or used for recreation. For SWPP the hazards within a watershed that could contribute to water contamination are identified together with the pathways that link them to the water resource. In rural areas, farms are significant potential sources of pathogens. A risk-based index can be used to support the assessment of the potential for contamination following guidelines on safety and operational efficacy of processes and practices developed as beneficial approaches to agricultural land management. Evaluation of the health risk for a target population requires knowledge of the strength of the hazard with respect to the pathogen load (mass concentration). Manure handling and on-site wastewater treatment systems form the most important hazards, and both can comprise confined and unconfined source elements. There is also a need to understand the modification of pathogen numbers (attenuation) together with characteristics of the established pathways (surface or subsurface), which allow the movement of the contaminant species from a source to a receptor (water source). Many practices for manure management have not been fully evaluated for their impact on pathogen survival and transport in the environment. A key component is the identification of potential pathways of contaminant transport. This requires the development of a suitable digital elevation model of the watershed for surface movement and information on local groundwater aquifer systems for subsurface flows. Both require detailed soils and geological information. The pathways to surface and groundwater resources can then be identified. Details of land management, farm management practices(including animal and manure management) and agronomic practices have to be obtained, possibly from questionnaires completed by each producer within the watershed. To confirm that potential pathways are active requires some microbial source tracking. One possibility is to identify the molecular types of Escherichia coli present in each hazard on a farm. An essential part of any such index is the identification of mitigation strategies and practices that can reduce the magnitude of the hazard or block open pathways.
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Journal of Environmental Management en_US
dc.subject Source water protection en_US
dc.subject Risk index en_US
dc.subject Manure en_US
dc.subject On-site waste treatment systems en_US
dc.subject Microbial pathogens en_US
dc.subject Persistence en_US
dc.subject Transport en_US
dc.subject Attenuation en_US
dc.subject Pathways en_US
dc.subject Barriers en_US
dc.title Development of a risk-based index for source water protection planning, which supports the reduction of pathogens from agricultural activity entering water resources en_US
dc.type Article en_US


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